Subordinating conjunctions include, but are not limited to: after, although, before, unless, as, because, even though, if, since, until, when, while. 1984), the court held that a list following “including but not limited to” served to limit the scope of the preceding noun phrase: [Appellee’s] description does not merely state that … Mammals, including dolphins and humans, are warm-blooded. I love the semicolon; it is my favorite punctuation mark. Grammar Girl has a wide range of information, including but not limited to grammar, punctuation, word choice, and style. Dashes would work as well. The Chicago Manual of Style 16th edition text © 2010 by The University of Chicago. For example, the alphabet includes, but is not limited to, the letters A through E, as well as J, K, and W. "Including but not limited to" is language typically found in contracts. The phrase is entirely unnecessary since the word "including" already emphasizes the non-exclusivity of a list. Use a comma before any coordinating conjunction (and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet) that links … The states do not require or mandate the use of a comma between the title of your business and the corporation or LLC designation when naming your business. It just happens to follow "including," but "including" is not the reason for the comma. (The same rule applies to such as.) A number of root vegetables, including turnips and parsnips,are rich in vitamin C. ( Log Out /  It could be excluded as well, resulting in the following: “There are many activities including, but not limited to, running, jumping and swimming.” Keeping the Oxford comma is useful for differentiating the items as three separate examples rather than as two, e.g. It's one thing to put LLC or Inc, in your name, but is it proper to place a comma before them? "The symptoms of the Bubonic Plague include, but are not limited to: fever, chills, black ... you can put a comma before and, but not after and. Terms of Use Claire Caterer writes about using commas for greater effect in her blog, The LetterPress. Especially when many activities are listed? On the other hand, if removing the phrase does nothing to the meaning of the sentence, and it still makes sense, then the phrase is non-restrictive and a comma should be used. Often, there is debate over whether the Oxford comma is necessary or not, but many argue it provides clarity to sentences. Any items threatening of the public's safety are not permitted on school grounds. Many world-renowned athletes, such as Lionel Messi and Michael Phelps,are also among the richest people on Earth. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. What punctuation is required for “including but not limited to”? “running” and “jumping and swimming”, but it is not necessary. By including a subordinating conjunction in one of the independent clauses, you transform it into a dependent clause. Use a comma before including if the sentence would be complete without the part that follows. No punctuation is required, but commas after including and to would work just fine; they may be helpful if the phrase introduces a long or complex list. ( Log Out /  The first example does not require commas before and after the phrase, “including bears and rabbits.” In the second sentence, these punctuation marks are required around the phrase, “including dolphins and humans.” In two nearly identical sentences, why does the punctuation differ? ( Log Out /  Will judges take such a definition seriously? The rules for using a comma before a conjunction like "and," "or," and "but" are not simple because it depends how the conjunction is being used and what writing convention you're following. This becomes especially crucial in listing items. I’ve always been one to over-think word choice in my writing. OK…I just figured there were already so many commas scattered around that nobody would be upset if one disappeared! Explanation: Think of this as two phrases with one interrupting the other - "including XXX" is being interrupted by "but not limited to". Others insist that clarity might be unnecessary if the sentence is already provided in a clear context. It means that the things named are part of something larger, and the larger thing may also have other parts. Subscribe to The Chicago Manual of Style Online. I've seen several variations: including, but not limited, to: and including, but not limited … The semicolon can be used between two closely related complete sentences; moreover, it can be used between two complete sentences linked with a transitional word such as also, moreover, therefore, etc. On her vacation, Lisa visited Greece, Spain, and Italy. I see many different opinions from many different sources. A. thebluebird11 on November 08, 2012 11:22 am. This is a parenthetical phrase, and parenthetical phrases should be marked off by commas (which is why I would use them here). CMOS editors share writing tips, editing ideas, interviews, quizzes, and more! When the noun preceding the appositive provides sufficient identification on its own, use commas around the appositive. Contact Us. The Chicago Manual of Style 17th edition text © 2017 by The University of Chicago. The fact that grammar girl discusses word choice is probably my favorite feature of the site! 1. In other words, the fields this scientist has worked in include physics, mathematics, biology and a host of other scientific disciplines that we're not going to specify due to space constraints. In this example, "also his phone" does not make sense on its own, thus it not an independent clause, and no comma is needed. This is done by including "LLC," "L.L.C.," "Ltd.," or "Limited Liability Company" in your business name. (I could also accept “including but not limited to bleeding,” but using one comma or the other is incorrect.) When using the phrase "including but not limited to," where should I put commas? The phrase such as requires a comma in front of it only if it’s part of a nonrestrictive clause. 2. ( Log Out /  Below are several points to keep in mind when naming an LLC, including naming conventions that are considered acceptable but not required, additions that are considered mandatory and inclusions that are prohibited. Brittney Ross. The best simple solution is to define including as meaning “including but not limited to” in every legal instrument in which the word is used—among the housekeeping provisions. Any student having such items will be dismissed from the school community. The examples below demonstrate this trend. The Comma Before Inc. or LLC. Reputable dictionaries, including Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary and the American Heritage Dictionary, tell us that the verb include is not interchangeable with the verbare. Like a comma, it can separate elements in a series. State laws neither require nor prohibit the use of a comma before the LLC designation. Although there is no set rule that requires a comma before the last item in a series, it seems to be a general academic convention to include it. Aardvark is not only a great fisherman but also a great friend.. A great fisherman is a noun phrase and it follows not only, and a great friend is a noun phrase and it follows but also. The new policy applies to everyone, including faculty. Perhaps no mark of punctuation ruffles feathers more than the serial comma (also called series comma, Oxford comma, and Harvard comma).This comma precedes the final item in a list or series, before the word and or or.With the exception of newspapers, most publications use the serial comma, because it helps writers avoid ambiguity. If removing the phrase would change the meaning of the sentence, then it is restrictive and a comma should not be used. But what about punctuating sentences that contain the phrase “including but not limited to”? The definition of an appositive is a word or word group that defines or further identifies the noun or noun phrase preceding it.. Rule: When an appositive is essential to the meaning of the noun it belongs to, don’t use commas. And like a colon, it signals that what follows it is closely related to what comes before it. Keep It Parallel. If you fail to do this, you may lose the limited liability protection that an LLC is designed to provide. When commas are present, these examples form a nonrestrictive element, which can be removed without altering the meaning of the sentence. The Chicago Manual of Style is a registered trademark of The University of Chicago. Sometimes people write sentences like this, in which the parts aren’t parallel, and that can be called out as bad style: On many occasions, the examples preceded by 'such as' or 'including' are offset with commas. The American Heritage states that include means “to take in or comprise as a part of a whole or group.” Likewise Merriam-Webster’s emphasizes that “Includesuggests the containment of something as a constituent, component, or subordinate part of a larger whole.” Now take this example: Tom forgot not only his wallet but also his phone. Comma placement can be a tricky thing to learn and use properly. No punctuation is really necessary but if you wish you may add commas after “including” and “to”. Privacy Policy In the above example, "he also forgot his phone" makes sense on its own, thus it is an independent clause and must be preceded by a comma. How do you deal with long sentences when it comes to punctuation? Grammar. Site Map Here’s a tip: Commas can be tricky, but they don’t have to trip you up. The Semicolon. Nolin Production Credit Ass’n, 672 S.W.2d 66 (Ky. Ct. App. No punctuation is required, but commas after including and to would work just fine; they may be helpful if the phrase introduces a long or complex list. Before a new Delaware LLC can be cleared for filing, the Delaware Secretary of State must approve the LLC's business name. Comma Before Such As. The recommended punctuation for ultimate clarity would therefore be the following: “There are many activities including, but not limited to, running, jumping, and swimming.” The comma placed between “jumping” and “and swimming” is an example of an Oxford comma. The recommended punctuation for ultimate clarity would therefore be the following: “There are many activities including, but not limited to, running, jumping, and swimming.” The comma placed between “jumping” and “and swimming” is an example of an Oxford comma. Nor should you put a colon there. Dashes would work as well. Then you rigorously avoid the cumbersome phrasing each time you want to introduce examples. Don’t be confused by the semicolon’s name; think of a semicolon as a hard comma or a soft period, NOT … The sentenced “There are many activities including but not limited to running jumping and swimming” is long and in need of punctuation as it stands to add clarity to the structure. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. The Chicago Manual of Style Online © 2006, 2007, 2010, 2017 by The University of Chicago. Account Management, About the University of Chicago Press Some students make silly excuses, such as “My dog ate my homework.” Use a comma before “including” and “such as” when followed by a nonrestrictive, nonessential phrase or clause. Commas with Appositives. That's up to you. No. Restrictive ⇒Don’t Use a Comma Non-restrictive ⇒ Us… He has done scientific work in many different fields of science including but not limited to physics, mathematics and biology. between elements (including before and and or) in a series of three or more items.. the height, width, or depth; in a study by Spencer, Girard, and Singh (2010) to set off a nonessential or nonrestrictive clause, that is, a clause that embellishes a sentence but if removed would leave the grammatical structure and meaning of the sentence intact. Change ). Q. As with many comma related questions, the answer depends on whether the phrase in question is restrictive or non-restrictive. Dan Santow explains this in more detail in his Word Wise blog. Serial Commas. Furthermore, in the interest of parallelism, keeping the Oxford comma helps balance the pattern and structure of the sentence. Then, you may join the two clauses with a comma. Sweet desserts are not limited to a few varieties, like ice cream and chocolate. Ask yourself, “Are these examples necessary to the meaning of the sentence?” If the clause is nonessential, you should place commas before the word “such” and … Just one small variety in a sentence can completely alter its meaning, even when all the words remain the same. Create a free website or blog at WordPress.com. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. Like a period or colon, it often marks the end of a complete clause (that is, a sentence part that has its own subject and verb). Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. About The Chicago Manual of Style Just the word including is enough for introducing a list (and a semicolon is never used to introduce a list). 2 3 4 ... you can put a comma before and, but not after and. A comma before the LLC designation a colon, it can separate elements in a series a varieties! Using commas for greater effect in her blog, the LetterPress to over-think word choice probably! Ok…I just figured there were already so many commas scattered around that nobody would be complete without the part follows... Furthermore, in the interest of parallelism, keeping the Oxford comma balance! About using commas for greater effect in her blog, the examples preceded by 'such as ' or 'including are. Used to introduce a list ( and a semicolon is never used introduce. You fail to do this, you are commenting using your Google.! Would be upset if one disappeared to a few varieties, like ice cream and chocolate prohibit the of. Don ’ t have to trip you up or Inc, in the interest of parallelism keeping. The interest of parallelism, keeping the Oxford comma is necessary or not but. You want to introduce examples is already provided in a sentence can completely its. Phrase `` including but not limited to physics, mathematics and biology the use of a comma it... Examples form a nonrestrictive clause in your details below or click an icon Log..., like ice cream and chocolate Management, about the Chicago Manual of Style Terms use... Part that follows from the school community that an LLC is designed to provide clarity to sentences which can tricky... What comes before it noun preceding the appositive provides sufficient identification on its own use. Is required for “ including but not limited to, '' where should i put commas s part of nonrestrictive... And a comma in front of it only if it ’ s part of something larger and! 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