A later starting time would allow teens more time to sleep--something that is important for their physical and mental health--and ultimately improve their academic performance and behavior. To teach science in these ways, teachers will need to move away from traditional models of instruction that emphasize memorizing facts and covering a large number of discrete topics, focusing instead on core ideas, studied in depth, through active student engagement in investigations and opportunities to reflect on and build scientific explanations for phenomena. practice to student learning and engagement in terms of both individual teachers and the teacher workforce more generally. Conclusions, Recommendations, and Directions for Research. 8 Creating a Supportive Context for Teacher Learning, Appendix: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff, The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Science Teachers' Learning: Enhancing Opportunities, Creating Supportive Contexts, http://www.nsta.org/about/positions/#list, 2 A New Vision of Science Teaching and Learning, 3 The Current Status of Science Instruction, 7 Teacher Learning in Schools and Classrooms, 9 Conclusions, Recommendations, and Directions for Research, science content and scientific practices, and. As addressed in my analysis of recent research, the advantages of a later starting time for high school students significantly outweigh the … Piecemeal approaches have not redressed this well-established problem. The portfolio of teacher. Lacking good outcome measures, considerable resources will continue to be devoted to professional learning opportunities with a limited ability to gauge their effects. In general, the evidence base related to learning opportunities for teachers that are embedded in schools and classrooms is weak, especially with regard to science. Conclusion is the final part of your research paper. The contextual factors that shape and are shaped by teachers’ learning opportunities, include teacher hiring, staffing, and assignment policies and practices; student and school demographics; resource distribution and use; instructional guidance; teacher evaluation; and school organization. Next Generation Science Standards Lead States. to summarize your argument for the reader and, perhaps, to call the reader to action if needed. This gap will challenge the collective capacity to assess any progress that may be made on meeting the challenges of the vision in the Framework and the NGSS. The recommendations below are intended to address the issues identified in the conclusions with particular attention to the ways that the current education system needs to be changed in order to support teachers’ ongoing learning as they respond to the demands placed by current reforms in science education. Creating such environments entails creating meaningful formal professional development programs and other opportunities for teachers to learn, as well as implementing policies and practices in schools that nurture cultures of learning for teachers and students alike. However, the evidence base related to learning opportunities for teachers in schools and classrooms is weak, especially with regard to science. Ready to take your reading offline? teacher learning ought to be designed to document its effects; this would mean designing strong research in tandem with professional learning experiences, whether those experiences are based in cultural institutions, industry, universities, or schools. Learning opportunities for science teachers should have the following characteristics: Designers of learning opportunities for teachers including commercial providers, community organizations, institutions of higher education and districts and states, should develop learning opportunities for teachers that reflect the above criteria. Committee on the Evaluation Framework for Successful K-12 STEM Education. Developing Assessments for the Next Generation Science Standards. These trends are especially pronounced both for elementary school teachers and in schools that serve high percentages of low-income students, where teachers are often newer and less qualified. A conclusion is your last chance to impress your ideas upon the reader. The theory emerges from the conversations: the conversations do not test … In this chapter, we defi ne research, discuss why it is important, advance ... conclusions from them, and to apply the fi ndings to their own unique situations. A growing body of research documents the generative conditions established for teacher learning when schools foster collective responsibility for student learning and well-being. Conclusion to Research Process. Without that kind of support, the local and essential work described in these recommendations will fall short. What kinds of expertise are needed to support these learning opportunities? A conclusion is used to summarize what you’ve written about in your academic paper. Conclusion 8: Schools need to be structured to encourage and support ongoing learning for science teachers especially given the number of new teachers entering the profession. In general, many teachers have had limited opportunities to engage in scientific and engineering practices themselves, much less to explore them in connection with the disciplinary core ideas and crosscutting concepts that animate the new vision. This, too, appears to be an area with too much potential to ignore. Although a growing number of studies entail carrying out large-scale, rigorous examinations of professional development interventions that link teachers’ learning to student outcomes, the results of those studies are mixed. Research Recommendation 6: Design and Implement Research Focused on the Learning Needs of Teacher Leaders and Professional Development Providers. Typical research on professional learning is small scale, conducted by the program designers or providers, and uses locally developed measures. At the same time, much remains to be learned. It is the last paragraph, which contains summary of the whole work and predictions for the future. will require the engagement of teachers, teacher leaders, and administrators as partners in creating strong systems of science teacher learning. Knowledge of the sciences one is assigned to teach, of how those sciences are related to one another and to other fields like engineering, and knowledge and skill in how best to teach students science also are essential to high-quality instruction as envisioned in the NGSS and Framework. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website. When developing a strategy for building capacity, school and district leaders should consider the tradeoffs inherent in such choices. Social networking and online environments hold promise for meeting the “just-in-time” learning needs of teachers, and for providing access to science expertise and science education expertise for teachers in schools and communities that lack rich resources in these domains. (2014). You will likely encounter projects like this in several classes in college. National Research Council. As noted, the above recommendations focus on schools and districts/school networks, as the committee sees work at that level as a necessary condition for realizing the vision of the Framework and NGSS. Teacher leaders also play a critical role in these efforts. However, the importance of a good conclusion for a research paper can hardly be overrated. This report makes actionable recommendations for science teachers' learning that take a broad view of what is known about science education, how and when teachers learn, and education policies that directly and indirectly shape what teachers are able to learn and teach. The reader should feel that writer has made the point they wish to make, and supported their thesis by effectively arguing their case. But teachers do not teach diverse learners on Tuesdays and science on Wednesdays; they teach the two together, and supportive professional learning experiences for teachers will integrate knowledge across a range of domains. The range of new roles for teacher leaders—lead teacher, curriculum specialist, mentor, collaborating teacher, instructional coach, professional development leader—holds considerable potential for enhancing the science teacher workforce. teaching. 9. When relevant, attending to the potential role of technology in enabling teacher learning would help schools and school districts take advantage of the capabilities of new technologies in enabling teacher learning. While an effective conclusion serves as … Create, evaluate, and revise policies and practices that encourage teachers to engage in professional learning related to science: District and school administrators and relevant leaders should work to establish dedicated professional development time during the salaried work week and work year for science teachers. For example, teachers would be aided in achieving the new vision by research documenting how they can tap into students’ funds of knowledge when teaching a specific scientific practice or disciplinary idea. Conclusion 10: School and district administrators are central to building the capacity of the science teacher workforce. ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one. These efforts should include creating learning opportunities for teachers but might also include exploring different models for incorporating science expertise, such as employing science specialists at the elementary level or providing high school science department heads with time to observe and collaborate with their colleagues. Little to no published research exists on the effects of recruitment, retention, and staffing policies on the quality of the science teaching workforce and of science instruction in schools and districts. This new vision of science teaching and learning will require new learning on the part of all teachers in all of these domains. Conclusion 6: Professional learning in online environments and through social networking holds promise, although evidence on these modes from both research and practice is limited. The second to last step in conducting a research study is to interpret the findings in the Discussion section, draw conclusions, and make recommendations. 3.8 Main conclusions 3.8.1 Relating epistemology, learning theories and teaching methods 3.8.1.1 Pragmatism trumps ideology in teaching. Conclusion 9: Science teachers’ development is best understood as long term and contextualized. Conclusion. Science Teachers' Learning will be a valuable resource for classrooms, departments, schools, districts, and professional organizations as they move to new ways to teach science. No system is in place to collect data on general trends in science teaching and learning. Research Recommendation 5: Focus Research on Exploring the Potential Role of Technology. In other words, it is reminding the reader of the main argument. An essay assignment may ask us to take a position on a matter, and then support that position with evidence found in research. As instructional leaders, they need to understand the vision for science education in the Framework and NGSS and align policies and practices in the school to support this vision. Substantially less research exists on other, potentially equally important opportunities for science teacher learning, including professional learning communities, mentoring and coaching, online learning, teacher networks, and teacher evaluation. Recently, there has been increasing commitment to creating schools where both students and teachers can learn. For students and schools, the implementation of any science standards rests with teachers. Almost no studies address school organization and context and how they might affect the impact of professional development programs. Where is that expertise located (inside and outside of schools)? Plus, conclusions will also differ based on the purpose of the writing. Opportunities are unevenly distributed across schools, districts, and regions, with little attention to sequencing or how to support science teachers’ learning systematically. There is increasing attention to creating opportunities for teachers to take on leadership roles to both improve science instruction and strengthen the science teacher workforce. 1See http://www.nsta.org/about/positions/#list [November 2015]. In addition, the vision emphasizes the need to integrate knowledge through crosscutting concepts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. The conduct of such research would require having much better documentation of the range of learning opportunities in which teachers participate and that were designed intentionally to build upon, extend, and enhance one another. Research paper is an integral part of any educational process, thus writing it in a proper way is a must for any student. A wide range of research methodologies have important roles in shedding light on science teacher learning, as does the use of multiple measures of teacher knowledge and practice and student engagement and learning. When selecting learning opportunities for teachers, district and school leaders and teachers themselves should use the above criteria as a guide for identifying the most promising programs and learning experiences. Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text. As simple as this message may seem, the proverbial devil is in the details. That change will require learning opportunities for teachers that reinforce and expand their knowledge of the major ideas and concepts in science, their familiarity with a range of instructional strategies, and the skills to implement those strategies in the classroom. In light of our school’s/district’s science goals for our students, what learning opportunities will teachers need? Finally, the conclusion of the Discussion & Conclusion is where you try to summarize the results in a sentence or two and connect them with the purpose of the study. In reviewing the available research related to issues of contemporary science teacher learning, the committee drew a series of interrelated conclusions: Conclusion 1: An evolving understanding of how best to teach science, including the NGSS, represents a significant transition in the way science is currently taught in most classrooms and will require most science teachers to alter the way they teach. N 2 W hat is research? Science Teachers' Learning provides guidance for schools and districts on how best to support teachers' learning and how to implement successful programs for professional development. I would encourage an in-depth look at the reactions of students to such a change. In particular, leadership by administrators at the school and district levels is critical to promoting and supporting the enabling conditions for science teachers to learn. Conclusion 3: Typically, the selection of and participation in professional learning opportunities is up to individual teachers. While the focus of this report differs from theirs, the conceptual framework for using research knowledge to influence educational practice applies. District and state administrators should use these criteria to provide guidance for teachers on how to identify high-quality learning experiences. Extract ← 204 | 205 → CHAPTER 12 Conclusion: Educational Research in Learning Communities Introduction This chapter explores the place and the value of educational research work within universities, and proposes a theory of virtuous educational research, based on all the conversations and analysis already presented. In many ways, the message of this report is a simple one: all students deserve to understand and enjoy science, and helping teachers offer rich instruction will require building similarly rich learning environments for all science teachers. Conducting Educational Research Step 19: Write Discussion and Conclusion. No system is in place to collect data on the science teacher workforce, their qualifications, experience, and preparation. Conclusions The pace at which science proceeds sometimes seems alarmingly slow, and impatience and hopes both run high when discussions turn to issues of learning and education. Finally, given that many schools and school networks are currently engaged in efforts to improve teacher learning opportunities, some of the research envisioned here might draw on design-based implementation research, networked improvement communities, strategic education partnerships, or other research designs. District personnel and school principals, in collaboration with teachers and parents, should identify the specific learning needs of science teachers in their schools and develop a multiyear growth plan for their. These contexts include, but are not limited to school, district, and state policies and practices concerning professional capacity (e.g., professional networks, coaching, partnerships), coherent instructional guidance (e.g., state and district curriculum and assessment/accountability policies), and leadership (e.g., principals and teacher leaders). To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter. Next Generation Science Standards: For States, By States. Throughout this process, attention should be paid to the opportunities available for teachers to learn about. Since teachers spend the majority of their professional time in classrooms and schools, it seems wise to capitalize on efforts to design. 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