2000. All structured data from the file and property namespaces is available under the. カテゴリ「Ptolemaic dynasty」にあるメディア このカテゴリに属する 12 個のファイルのうち、 12 個を表示しています。 25-msr-cleopatre-v-5.stl 5,120 × 2,880;33.38メガバイト [42] Reflecting Greek preferences, the traditional table for offerings disappeared from reliefs during the Ptolemaic period, while male gods were no longer portrayed with tails, so as to make them more human-like in accordance with the Hellenistic tradition. The city enjoyed a calm political history under the Ptolemies. Map of Ancient Egypt 2500 BCE Section 3: The Middle Kingdom The First Intermediate Period The last large pyramid of the Old Kingdom was erected for Pepy II, after a 96 year reign (c. 2246-2152 BCE). However, there are many examples of nearly identical sistrums and columns dating all the way to Dynasty 18 in the New Kingdom. Wine production increased dramatically during the Ptolemaic period, as the new Greek ruling class greatly preferred wine to the beer traditionally produced in Egypt. Because the Ptolemaic kings adopted the Egyptian custom of marrying their sisters, many of the kings ruled jointly with their spouses, who were also of the royal house. One of the unique and often misunderstood aspects of the Ptolemaic dynasty is how and why it never became Egyptian. In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. ), The Ptolemies, the Sea and the Nile. [51], By the second and first centuries, increasing warfare and expansion, coupled with reduced Greek immigration, led to increasing reliance on native Egyptians; however, Greeks retained the higher ranks of royal guards, officers, and generals. This victory marked the zenith of the Ptolemaic power. In every respect they remained completely Greek, both in their language and traditions. It is, therefore, purely Egyptian in style. Legend and numerous ancient sources claim that she died by way of the venomous bite of an asp, though others state that she used poison, or that Octavian ordered her death himself. Beginning with the Second Syrian War (260–253 BC), the navy suffered a series of defeats and declined in military importance, which coincided with the loss of Egypt's overseas possessions and the erosion of its maritime hegemony. Ptolemy III continued his predecessor's sponsorship of scholarship and literature. Alexander and his Seleucid successors founded many Greek cities all over their dominions. They became lovers, and she bore him a son, Caesarion. Further outrage followed at the donations of Alexandria ceremony in autumn of 34 BC in which Tarsus, Cyrene, Crete, Cyprus, and Judaea were all to be given as client monarchies to Antony's children by Cleopatra. She reigned as queen "philopator" and pharaoh with various male co-regents from 51 to 30 BC when she died at the age of 39. From the very beginning the Ptolemaic army demonstrated considerable resourcefulness and adaptability. In his will Antony expressed his desire to be buried in Alexandria, rather than taken to Rome in the event of his death, which Octavian used against Antony, sowing further dissent in the Roman populace. The Library, at that time the largest in the world, contained several hundred thousand volumes and housed and employed scholars and poets. From the mid third century, Ptolemaic Egypt was the wealthiest and most powerful of Alexander's successor states, and the leading example of Hellenistic civilization. [57] Kleroi grants could be extensive: a cavalryman could receive at least 70 arouras of land, equal to about 178,920 square metres, and as much as 100 arouras; infantrymen could expect 30 or 25 arouras and machimoi at least five auroras, considered enough for one family. Ptolemy, son of Lagos took control of Egypt and governed the country until 305 BC, when he was crowned King. Ptolemy successfully defended Egypt against an invasion by Perdiccas in 321 BC, and consolidated his position in Egypt and the surrounding areas during the Wars of the Diadochi (322–301 BC). [38] However, ways of presenting text on columns and reliefs became formal and rigid during the Ptolemaic Dynasty. As Egypt came under foreign domination and decline, the Pharaohs depended on the Greeks as mercenaries and even advisors. [55], To obtain reliable and loyal soldiers, the Ptolemies developed several strategies that leveraged their ample financial resources and even Egypt's historical reputation for wealth; royal propaganda could be evidenced in a line by the poet Theocritus, "Ptolemy is the best paymaster a free man could have". [5] Ruling for nearly three centuries, the Ptolemies were the longest and final Egyptian dynasty of ancient origin. It was attached, in the administrative system, to the Saïte nome. This achievement is heavily advertised at the Temple of Isis at Philae, which was granted the tax revenues of the Dodecaschoenus region in 157 BC. [citation needed] They built magnificent new temples for the Egyptian gods and soon adopted the outward display of the pharaohs of old. He left a stable and well-governed kingdom to his son. Located 30 kilometres (19 mi) west of the Nile's westernmost mouth, the city was immune to the silt deposits that persistently choked harbors along the river. This custom made Ptolemaic politics confusingly incestuous, and the later Ptolemies were increasingly feeble. Although Egypt was a prosperous kingdom, with the Ptolemies lavishing patronage through religious monuments and public works, the native population enjoyed few benefits; wealth and power remained overwhelmingly in the hands of Greeks. [32] This sistrum appears to be an intermediate hue, which fits with its date at the beginning of the Ptolemaic empire. In 312 BC, allied with Seleucus, the ruler of Babylonia, he defeated Demetrius, the son of Antigonus, in the battle of Gaza. The Ptolemaic Dynasty ruled Egypt and much of the eastern Mediterranean basin for nearly 300 years. During the reign of Ptolemies II and III, thousands of Macedonian veterans were rewarded with grants of farm lands, and Macedonians were planted in colonies and garrisons or settled themselves in villages throughout the country. He was succeeded by his infant son Ptolemy VI Philometor. His first objective was to hold his position in Egypt securely, and secondly to increase his domain. He abandoned his predecessors' policy of keeping out of the wars of the other Macedonian successor kingdoms, and plunged into the Third Syrian War (246-241 BC) with the Seleucid Empire of Syria, when his sister, Queen Berenice, and her son were murdered in a dynastic dispute. Over time, the Greeks in Egypt became somewhat homogenized and the cultural distinctions between immigrants from different regions of Greece became blurred.[84]. We have still, inscribed on stone, decrees passed in the assembly of the people of Ptolemais, couched in the regular forms of Greek political tradition: It seemed good to the boule and to the demos: Hermas son of Doreon, of the deme Megisteus, was the proposer: Whereas the prytaneis who were colleagues with Dionysius the son of Musaeus in the 8th year, etc. Alexandria would remain one of the leading cities of the Mediterranean well into the late Middle Ages. The Ptolemys coexisted as both Egyptian pharaohs as well as Greek monarchs. Throughout, Ptolemy IV is presented as taking on the role of Horus who avenges his father by defeating the forces of disorder led by the god Set. He married his sister Arsinoë, but was ruled by his mistress Agathoclea. At the Great Harbor's mouth, on an outcropping of Pharos, stood the lighthouse, built c. 280 BC. The Ptolemaic kingdom was diverse in the people who settled and made Egypt their home on this time. The Romans, like the Ptolemies, respected and protected Egyptian religion and customs, although the cult of the Roman state and of the Emperor was gradually introduced. This page was last edited on 26 November 2019, at 23:02. [68] He and his immediate successors turned to developing the navy to project power overseas, rather than build a land empire in Greece or Asia. Unter Mitwirkung des Verfassers bearbeitet von ... G. L. Kriegk. Ptolemy III had introduced an important innovation in 238 BC by holding a synod of all the priests of Egypt at Canopus. The figure also exemplifies the fusing of Greek and Egyptian art. During his stay in Egypt, he also founded the legendary city of Alexandriaat the location of the formerly unimportant Egyptian town of Rhakotis. If there is some doubt whether Alexandria possessed a council and assembly, there is none in regard to Ptolemais. The figures in the scenes are smooth, rounded, and high relief, a style continued throughout the 30th Dynasty. Cleopatra VII ascended the Egyptian throne at the age of seventeen upon the death of her father, Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos. Ptolemy V Epiphanes and Ptolemy VI Philometor, Scholars also argue that the kingdom was founded in 304 BC because of different use of calendars: Ptolemy crowned himself in 304 BC on the ancient Egyptian calendar but in 305 BC on the. [85] The Septuagint, the Greek translation of the Jewish scriptures, appeared and was written by seventy Jewish Translators who were compelled to create the translation by Ptolemy II. Many Jews were imported from neighboring Judea by the thousands for being renowned fighters, also establishing an important community. This unique characteristic was maintained through intermarriage; most often these marriages were either between brother and sister or even uncle and niece. Laid out on a grid pattern, Alexandria occupied a stretch of land between the sea to the north and Lake Mareotis to the south; a man-made causeway, over three-quarters of a mile long, extended north to the sheltering island of Pharos, thus forming a double harbor, east and west. [37], Despite the unification of Greek and Egyptian elements in the intermediate Ptolemaic period, the Ptolemaic Kingdom also featured prominent temple construction as a continuation of developments based on Egyptian art tradition from the Thirtieth Dynasty. In 305 BC, Ptolemy took the title of King. According to Hellenistic civilization continued to thrive even after Rome annexed Egypt after the battle of Actium and did not decline until the Islamic conquests. He was lynched by the Alexandrian mob after murdering his stepmother, who was also his cousin, aunt and wife. [citation needed] Naucratis, therefore, in spite of its general Hellenic character, had an Egyptian element. They were partly spread as allotment-holders over the country, forming social groups, in the country towns and villages, side by side with the native population, partly gathered in the three Greek cities, the old Naucratis, founded before 600 BC (in the interval of Egyptian independence after the expulsion of the Assyrians and before the coming of the Persians), and the two new cities, Alexandria by the sea, and Ptolemais in Upper Egypt. [13] Thereafter Ptolemy tried to stay out of land wars, but he retook Cyprus in 295 BC. [23] The chief librarian served also as the crown prince's tutor. Soldiers served in several units of the royal guard and were mobilized against uprisings and dynastic usurpers, both of which became increasingly common. The Ptolemaic Kingdom (; Ancient Greek: Πτολεμαϊκὴ βασιλεία, Ptolemaïkḕ Basileía) [4] was a Hellenistic kingdom based in Egypt.It was ruled by the Ptolemaic dynasty which started with Ptolemy I Soter's accession after the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and which ended with the death of Cleopatra VII and the Roman conquest in 30 BC. Serapis was the patron god of Ptolemaic Egypt, combining the Egyptian gods Apis and Osiris with the Greek deities Zeus, Hades, Asklepios, Dionysos, and Helios; he had powers over fertility, the sun, funerary rites, and medicine. The Ptolemaic Egypt is a major power of the Mediterranean Sea, occupying territory in North Africa, Middle East and Cyprus. [11] He visited Memphis, and traveled to the oracle of Amun at the Siwa Oasis. . [49] The army was characterized by its diversity and maintained records of its troops' national origins, or patris. With the deaths of Cleopatra and Caesarion, the dynasty of Ptolemies and the entirety of pharaonic Egypt came to an end. [46] Priests and other religious officials remained overwhelmingly Egyptian, and continued to enjoy royal patronage and social prestige, as the Ptolemies' relied on the Egyptian faith to legitimize their rule and placate the populace. The only Ptolemaic Queens to officially rule on their own were Berenice III and Berenice IV. Ptolemy ruled Egypt from 323 BC, nominally in the name of the joint kings Philip III and Alexander IV. 2, Arabs in Antiquity: Their History from the Assyrians to the Umayyads, Prof. Jan Retso, Page: 301, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Ancient Egypt - Macedonian and Ptolemaic Egypt (332–30 bce)", http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/acha/hd_acha.htm, http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/alex/hd_alex.htm, "Bronze statuette of Horus | Egyptian, Ptolemaic | Hellenistic | The Met", "Faience amulet of Mut with double crown | Egyptian, Ptolemaic | Hellenistic | The Met", "Marble head of a Ptolemaic queen | Greek | Hellenistic | The Met", "Statuette of Arsinoe II for her Posthumous Cult | Ptolemaic Period | The Met", "Army and Egyptian Temple Building Under the Ptolemies", "Egyptian Art During the Ptolemaic Period of Egyptian History", The Ptolemies, the Sea and the Nile: Studies in Waterborne Power, Novel Ptolemaic naval power: Arsinoë II, Ptolemy II, and Cleopatra VII’s innovative thalassocracies, "The Nile Police in the Ptolemaic Period", in: K. Buraselis – M. Stefanou – D.J. Under Cleopatra, who sought to restore Ptolemaic power, Egypt became entangled in a Roman civil war, which ultimately led to its conquest by Rome as the last independent Hellenistic state. They lived under Greek law, received a Greek education, were tried in Greek courts, and were citizens of Greek cities. When the coalition was renewed against Antigonus in 302 BC, Ptolemy joined it, but neither he nor his army were present when Antigonus was defeated and killed at Ipsus. To legitimize their rule and gain recognition from native Egyptians, the Ptolemies adopted the title of pharaoh and had themselves portrayed on public monuments in Egyptian style and dress; otherwise, the monarchy rigorously maintained its Hellenistic character and traditions. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. It began when Greek colonists, encouraged by many Pharaohs, set up the trading post of Naucratis. Octavian waited for a year before he claimed Egypt as a Roman province. [Note 1][6][7] Alexandria, a Greek polis founded by Alexander, became the capital city and a major center of Greek culture, learning, and trade for the next several centuries. His growth and popularity reflected a deliberate policy by the Ptolemaic state, and was characteristic of the dynasty's use of Egyptian religion to legitimize their rule and strengthen their control. Scenes were often framed with textual inscriptions, with a higher text to image ratio than seen previously during the New Kingdom. The material and literary splendour of the Alexandrian court was at its height under Ptolemy II. Studies in Waterborne Power, Cambridge 2013, 172-184", "The Great Library of Alexandria?". And the number of Greek men of letters during the Ptolemaic and Roman period, who were citizens of Naucratis, proves that in the sphere of Hellenic culture Naucratis held to its traditions. Native Egyptians maintained power over local and religious institutions, and only gradually accrued power in the bureaucracy, provided they Hellenized. Caesarion, her son by Julius Caesar, nominally succeeded Cleopatra until his capture and supposed execution in the weeks after his mother's death. But Greeks continued to staff most of the administrative offices and Greek remained the language of government except at the highest levels. The city's temples and communities prosperous, while a new Ptolemaic style of cemeteries were built. The aforementioned inscription regarding the priests of Mandulis shows that some Nubian leaders at least were paying tribute to the Ptolemaic treasury in this period. Land and Taxes in Ptolemaic Egypt An Edition, Translation and Commentary for the Edfu Land Survey (P. Haun. During this period, Greek troops under Ptolemy I Soter were given land grants and brought their families encouraging tens of thousands of Greeks to settle the country making themselves the new ruling class. Ptolemaic art was produced during the reign of the Ptolemaic Rulers (304–30 BC), and was concentrated primarily within the bounds of the Ptolemaic Empire. As a Macedonian dynasty, they derived much of their legitimacy from military activity. Following Alexander's death, control passed into the hands of the Lagid (Ptolemaic) Dynasty; they built Greek cities across their empire and gave land grants across Egypt to the veterans of their many military conflicts. [65] The Ptolemaic navy also protected the kingdom's lucrative maritime trade and engaged in antipiracy measures, including along the Nile. After her repudiation he followed Egyptian custom and married his sister, Arsinoe II, beginning a practice that, while pleasing to the Egyptian population, had serious consequences in later reigns. Fortunately, Ptolemy I had left Egypt strong and prosperous; three years of campaigning in the First Syrian War made the Ptolemies masters of the eastern Mediterranean, controlling the Aegean islands (the Nesiotic League) and the coastal districts of Cilicia, Pamphylia, Lycia and Caria. [34] For example, Head Attributed to Arsinoe II deified her as an Egyptian goddess. This portrayal refers to the myth of Horus triumphing over dangerous animals in the marshes of Khemmis with magic power (also known as Akhmim).[44][45]. Nevertheless, his ministers were able to make serious preparations to meet the attacks of Antiochus III the Great on Coele-Syria, and the great Egyptian victory of Raphia in 217 BC secured the kingdom. Their marriage was only nominal, however, and their relationship soon degenerated. This inbreeding was intended to stabilize the family; wealth a… It was founded in 305 BC by Ptolemy I Soter, a companion of Alexander the Great, and lasted until the death of Cleopatra in 30 BC. The left is in the more traditional Egyptian style, and the right is in a more Hellenistic style. Francis. Ancient Egypt - Ancient Egypt - Macedonian and Ptolemaic Egypt (332–30 bce): In the autumn of 332 bce Alexander the Great invaded Egypt with his mixed army of Macedonians and Greeks and found the Egyptians ready to throw off the oppressive control of the Persians. (2019). [66], Like the army, the origins and traditions of the Ptolemaic navy were rooted in the wars following the death of Alexander in 320 BC. When Antigonus, ruler of Syria, tried to reunite Alexander's empire, Ptolemy joined the coalition against him. . 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