10, 14 March 2016 | Wireless Personal Communications, Vol. In the paper, we show the possibility of preparing amorphous SiOxNy-based materials from selected liquid organosilicon compounds, methyltrimethoxysilane CH3Si(OCH3)3 and methyltriethoxysilane CH3Si(OC2H5)3, by a … 25, No. Indirect capture digital radiography is unlike direct capture technology in that indirect technology uses A. Amorphous selenium B. 3, 27 August 2004 | Medical Physics, Vol. A flat-panel detector based on a matrix of amorphous silicon was integrated into a projection radiography system. Amorphous silicon, amorphous selenium, and complementary metal oxide semiconductor are the different types of flat panel detectors used for x-ray imaging. Investigative Radiology. 23, Bulletin of the Lebedev Physics Institute, Vol. Flat Panel History 1985 to 90 – Theoretical studies and early research-Xerox PARC, Varian, GE, Thomson, Philips, U. Mich. etc. 7, 1 May 2007 | RadioGraphics, Vol. 23, No. No thin-film-transistor (TFT) technology C. A scintillator material to produce light in a two-step process D. Amorphous silicon bonded to amorphous selenium as a two-step process 7, 13 January 2008 | Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics, Vol. 9, 24 May 2004 | Medical Physics, Vol. 231, No. II. The design and the performance of a 20 cm by 20 cm flat panel x-ray detector for digital radiography and fluoroscopy is described: Thin film amorphous silicon (aSi) technology has … And as of October 2017, we had an installation base of 170,000 flat panel detectors. 7, 1 April 2003 | Radiology, Vol. Fluorescence is transmitted through the needle crystal to the amorphous silicon … Last Modified Date: December 27, 2020. 117, No. 227, No. Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid. Digital radiography with a large-area, amorphous-silicon, flat-panel x-ray detector system. 18, No. (e-mail. 1040, 30 November 2016 | Medical Physics, Vol. In May of 2017, Varex Imaging Corporation passed an amazing milestone: the sale of its 100,000th amorphous silicon flat panel detector. 2, American Journal of Roentgenology, Vol. For the first time, a team at HZB has identified the atomic substructure of amorphous silicon with a resolution of 0.8 nanometres using X-ray and neutron scattering at BESSY II … The scintillator consisted of a layer of structured cesium iodide. 2, The British Journal of Radiology, Vol. Basic imaging characteristics of the FPD and associated image processing system were assessed on acquired images, including linearity, repeatability, uniformity of response, modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum, detective quantum efficiency (DQE), contrast sensitivity, and scatter content. 21, No. Amorphous silicon brings key advantages unmatched by other technologies, including: - radiation hardness > 1MRad - widest input energy range - immunity from single photon events in the substrate PERFORMANCE CHARACTERIZATION OF AMORPHOUS SILICON DIGITAL DETECTOR ARRAYS FOR GAMMA RADIOGRAPHY Rajashekar Venkatachalam 1, Manoharan V1, Raghu C , Venumadhav Vedula1, Debasish Mishra2 1 GE- lob aR esea rch C nt , B g I dia 2 GE- lob aR e sea rch C nt , Ni ky u U.S.A Abstract This paper reports the performance characteristics of a-Si detectors with Ir-192 gamma source. 41, No. Received March 9, 2000; revision requested April 26; revision received May 25; accepted June 15. 6, 30 November 2016 | Medical Physics, Vol. 1, The British Journal of Radiology, Vol. al flat-panel detector. 31, No. 36, No. Flat-panel detectors: how much better are they? 4, Journal of Thoracic Imaging, Vol. 1, Japanese Journal of Radiological Technology, Vol. 31, No. Like a TFT-LCD display, millions of roughly 0.2 mm pixels each containing a thin-film transistor form a grid patterned in amorphous silicon on the glass substrate. PURPOSE: To evaluate the imaging characteristics of an amorphous silicon flat-panel detector (FPD) for digital chest radiography. 2, European Journal of Radiology, Vol. Digital Amorphous Silicon Flat-Panel Detector Radiography Versus Conventional Film-Screen Radiography and Phosphor-Based Computed Radiography, Reducing the Radiation Dose During Excretory Urography: 61, No. 1, European Journal of Radiology, Vol. 11, 24 November 2016 | Journal of Instrumentation, Vol. 2, 21 June 2005 | Medical Physics, Vol. 27, No. 250, No. The measurement of DQE yielded a high value of 70% at zero spatial frequency. 30, No. 77, No. 4, 17 January 2003 | Medical Physics, Vol. 1-3, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 6Part1, Journal of Thoracic Imaging, Vol. PURPOSE: To determine the performance of amorphous silicon flat-panel detector radiography compared to mammography film in detecting rheumatologic bone defects at different exposure doses. 64, No. pitch 8 inch CMOS image sensor for the high resolution NDT application, A novel radiation detector for removing scattered radiation in chest radiography: Monte Carlo simulation-based performance evaluation, Image Selection Algorithm Proposal for Digital Radiography Training Simulator, Chest X-ray Artifact Caused by Bilateral 99mTc-Antimony Trisulfite Injection for Sentinel Node Imaging in a Patient With Breast Cancer, Gain Correction for an X-ray Imaging System With a Movable Flat Panel Detector and Intrinsic Localization Crosshair, Vascular Imaging for Image-Guided Interventions, Sub-micron gap in-plane micromechanical resonators based on low-temperature amorphous silicon thin-films on glass substrates, Property of Focal Spot of Electron Beam Depending on the Anode Angle of X-ray Tube Using a Finite Element Method, Detectability of simulated interstitial pneumonia on chest radiographs: comparison between irradiation side sampling indirect flat-panel detector and computed radiography, Characterization of a clinical unit for digital radiography based on irradiation side sampling technology, Effective DQE (eDQE) for monoscopic and stereoscopic chest radiography imaging systems with the incorporation of anatomical noise, Estimation of the two-dimensional presampled modulation transfer function of digital radiography devices using one-dimensional test objects, Evaluation and comparison of image quality for indirect flat panel systems with CsI and GOS scintillators, Dynamic dual-energy chest radiography: a potential tool for lung tissue motion monitoring and kinetic study. Both use TFTs. Amorphous-silicon bolometer technology has always lagged somewhat in performance. Digital Radiography with a Large-Area, Amorphous-Silicon, Flat-Panel X-Ray Detector System. The flat-panel detector furthermore has an MTF that is superior to that in regular screen-film systems and also provides a substantially larger dynamic range. Amorphous silicon image sensors, developed by dpiX, A Xerox New Enterprise Company, offer an improved method of acquiring digital x-ray images. 2-D x-ray uoroscopy. 9, 21 September 2012 | Medical Physics, Vol. 64, No. 181, No. Flat panel detectors - describe both indirect amorphous silicon and the direct amorphous selenium plates used in some digital systems. ¾Mostly used for medical radiographic imaging Amorphous Silicon Flat Panel Image DetectorsAmorphous Silicon Flat Panel Image Detectors. 2, The British Journal of Radiology, Vol. Noise power spectruma), Imaging properties of digital magnification radiography, Image Quality and Detection Performance of a Direct Digital Radiography System, Experimental Evaluation of a Portable Indirect Flat-Panel Detector for the Pediatric Chest: Comparison with Storage Phosphor Radiography at Different Exposures by Using a Chest Phantom1, Chest Radiography with a Flat-Panel Detector: Image Quality with Dose Reduction after Copper Filtration1, Portable Flat-Panel Detector for Low-Dose Imaging in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Comparison of Eight Different Digital Chest Radiography Systems: Variation in Detection of Simulated Chest Disease, Measurement of the detective quantum efficiency in digital detectors consistent with the IEC 62220-1 standard: Practical considerations regarding the choice of filter material, Comparative Scatter and Dose Performance of Slot-Scan and Full-Field Digital Chest Radiography Systems1, Computed Radiography and Direct Radiography, Chest Radiography with a Digital Flat-Panel Detector: Experimental Receiver Operating Characteristic Analysis1, Physical characteristics of a full-field digital mammography system, Fundamental imaging characteristics of a slot-scan digital chest radiographic system, Solid-state fluoroscopic imager for high-resolution angiography: Physical characteristics of an 8 cm×8 cm experimental prototype, Evaluation of the imaging properties of an amorphous selenium-based flat panel detector for digital fluoroscopy, Digital Slot-Scan Charge-coupled Device Radiography versus AMBER and Bucky Screen-Film Radiography for Detection of Simulated Nodules and Interstitial Disease in a Chest Phantom1, Evaluation of the use of six diagnostic X-ray spectra computer codes, a−Si:H/CsI(Tl) flat-panel versus computed radiography for chest imaging applications: image quality metrics measurement, Lumbar Spine Radiography: Digital Flat-Panel Detector versus Screen-Film and Storage-Phosphor Systems in Monkeys as a Pediatric Model1, Dose Reduction in Patients Undergoing Chest Imaging: 62, No. Enter your email address below and we will send you your username, If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to reset your password. 1, 1 May 2002 | Applied Optics, Vol. Subscribe now (individual subscription: $373.00), (This functionality works only for purchases made as a guest), Physics in Medicine & Biology, Vol. 4, Insight - Non-Destructive Testing and Condition Monitoring, Vol. The scintillator consisted of a layer of structured cesium iodide. A flat-panel detector based on a matrix of amorphous silicon was integrated into a projection radiography system. 533, No. 1-3, Japanese Journal of Radiological Technology, Vol. 25, No. 39, No. The active matrix size of 3000 2 pixels together with a pixel size of 143 μm provided a large image area of 43 × 43 cm 2 . This new technology demonstrates its potential to provide equal or superior image quality to conventional screen-film systems and to reduce patient exposure to radiation dose. 65, No. Chest radiographs can be acquired with a significantly lower patient radiation dose using an amorphous silicon flat-panel system than using an amorphous selenium flat-panel system, thereby producing images that are equal or even superior in quality to those of the amorphous selenium flat-panel detector system. 12, Radiation Protection Dosimetry, Vol. ?ller-AO and Frykman Classification for Distal Radius Fractures, Contrast-detail analysis of three flat panel detectors for digital radiography, Intercomparison of methods for image quality characterization. During operation, the X – ray photon-excited scintillator has produced fluorescence, and the spectral range of the fluorescence is around 550 nm, which is the sensitivity peak of amorphous silicon. 4, Japanese Journal of Radiological Technology, Vol. 35(4):260-266, APRIL 2000. 13, © 2021 Radiological Society of North America, To read the full-text, please use one of the options below to sign in or purchase access, Purchase this article as pay-per-view (unlimited access for 24 hours), https://doi.org/10.1148/radiology.218.3.r01fe45683, Development of a 55 μ CHARLES HANSON. Amorphous silicon appears to be an attractive material for making two dimensional, position sensitive x-ray and particle detectors. An amorphous silicon linear sensor originally manufactured for facsimile has been applied to imaging systems for industrial nondestructive testing and radiography. These so-called “dangling” bonds impact the inherent properties of … 19, No. Invest Radiol 2000;35:260–266. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The 41 × 41-cm digital FPD is constructed on a single monolithic glass substrate with a structured cesium iodide scintillator layer and an amorphous silicon thin-film transistor array for image readout. 5, 1 April 2004 | Radiology, Vol. 4, 4 July 2006 | Radiation Protection Dosimetry, Vol. 64, No. 31, No. 4, 22 July 2006 | Pediatric Radiology, Vol. X-ray images can be measured by scanning of a single linear sensor with a Gd 2 O 2 S phosphor sheet set on a sliding stage. Address correspondence to H.G.C. The contrast and scatter content of images acquired with the FPD were equivalent to those acquired with the storage phosphor system. On this page we describe photoconductors and compare them with phosphor screens, and discuss why we choose to … 229, No. PURPOSE: To evaluate the imaging characteristics of an amorphous silicon flat-panel detector (FPD) for digital chest radiography. Amorphous Selenium (a-Se) Many of the detector systems being developed in our lab use a photoconductor called amorphous Selenium (a-Se) as the X-ray detector material, i.e. 30, No. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The 41 × 41-cm digital FPD is constructed on a single monolithic glass substrate with a structured cesium iodide scintillator layer and an amorphous silicon thin-film transistor array for image readout. During the last 35 years, thermal imaging has emerged as a critical enabling technology for modern warfare. Amorphous silicon (a-Si) has been under intense investigation for over a decade for use in low cost photovoltaic solar cells and more recently for use in electronic devices, displays, and imaging optical sensors. At a system dose equivalent to 400 speed, the DQE of the digital system was a factor of two larger than the DQE of a storage phosphor or screen-film system within the entire spatial frequency range between zero and the Nyquist limit of 3.5 line pairs per millimeter. A flat-panel detector based on a matrix of amorphous silicon was integrated into a projection radiography system. To investigate the image quality of a digital radiography system with an amorphous-silicon, large-area, digital flat-panel detector. The term "amorphous silica" is used here for the pure forms of SiO 2such as colloidal silica, precipitated silica, silica gel, pyrogenic silica, silica fume, quartz glass, fused silica and also the skeletons of Radiolaria and diatoms in the form of diatomaceous 3, 14 June 2006 | Journal of Digital Imaging, Vol. 9, No. These detectors were originally designed for radiography and uoroscopy, but because of their compactness, exibility, low spatial distortion, and relative low-cost, m 1From the Department of Radiology, Digital Imaging Research Division, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3302, Room 139, Bryan Research Building, Durham, NC 27710 (all authors); and the Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC (C.E.F., R.J.W., J.T.D., A.H.B.). I. Modulation transfer functiona), Intercomparison of methods for image quality characterization. 3, Radiation Protection Dosimetry, Vol. 33, No. It is mainly composed of a scintillator, a photodiode circuit made of amorphous silicon, and an underlying TFT charge signal readout circuit. 1, 26 March 2003 | Medical Physics, Vol. 31, No. Detection of small pulmonary nodules on chest radiographs: efficacy of dual-energy subtraction technique using flat-panel detector chest radiography, The influence of liquid crystal display monitors on observer performance for the detection of interstitial lung markings on both storage phosphor and flat-panel-detector chest radiography, Effects of dual-energy subtraction chest radiography on detection of small pulmonary nodules with varying attenuation: receiver operating characteristic analysis using a phantom study, Dual Energy Subtraction Digital Radiography Improves Performance of a Next Generation Computer-aided Detection Program, Application of QC_DR Software for Acceptance Testing and Routine Quality Control of Direct Digital Radiography Systems: Initial Experiences using the Italian Association of Physicist in Medicine Quality Control Protocol, Composite modulation transfer function evaluation of a cone beam computed tomography breast imaging system, Effective DQE (eDQE) and speed of digital radiographic systems: An experimental methodology, Imaging Performance with Different Doses in Skeletal Radiography: Comparison of a Needle-structured and a Conventional Storage Phosphor System with a Flat-Panel Detector1, Investigation of Imaging Properties of Digital Imaging Systems, Clinical assessment and characterization of a dual-tube kilovoltage X-ray localization system in the radiotherapy treatment room, Quantitative assessment of the influence of anatomic noise on the detection of subtle lung nodule in digital chest radiography using fractal-feature distance, Investigation of optimum X-ray beam tube voltage and filtration for chest radiography with a computed radiography system, Scatter rejection and low-contrast performance of a slot-scan digital chest radiography system with electronic aft-collimation: A chest phantom study, Dual Energy Subtraction and Temporal Subtraction Chest Radiography, Detectability of lung nodules using flat panel detector with dual energy subtraction by two shot method: Evaluation by ROC method, Rejection and redistribution of scattered radiation in scan equalization digital radiography (SEDR): Simulation with spot images, Assessment of Detective Quantum Efficiency: Intercomparison of a Recently Introduced International Standard with Prior Methods1, Advances in Digital Radiography: Physical Principles and System Overview1, A comparison of low contrast performance for amorphous Silicon/caesium iodide direct radiography with a computed radiography: A contrast detail phantom study, An Experimental Comparison of Flat-Panel Detector Performance for Direct and Indirect Systems (Initial Experiences and Physical Evaluation), A new method for an improved determination of continuous photon fluence spectra for X-ray tube voltages up to 150 kV, Dual Energy Subtraction Digital Radiography. In the amorphous silicon X-ray flat panel detector, there are two main factors that affect DQE: the coating of the scintillator and the transistor that converts visible light into electrical signals. the material which 'catches the X-rays', and converts them to either charge or lower energy photons. sensors Article Substrate and Passivation Techniques for Flexible Amorphous Silicon-Based X-ray Detectors Michael A. Marrs 1,* and Gregory B. Raupp 2 1 Flexible Electronics and Display Center, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85284, USA 2 School for Engineering of Matter, Transport, and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA; raupp@asu.edu * Correspondence: … 30, No. 33, No. 1, 1 October 2003 | Radiology, Vol. 41, No. 81, No. 6Part1, 30 November 2016 | Medical Physics, Vol. Conventional images were compared with digital images acquired with equal dose (2.5 microGy) and with 50% dose reduction. However, it differs from silicon in that it is non-crystallized and disordered in the same way that ordinary glass is, meaning that some of the atoms in its chemical structure resist bonding. 2, 1 January 2003 | Radiology, Vol. PURPOSE: To compare image quality and estimated dose for chest radiographs obtained by using a cesium iodide–amorphous silicon flat-panel detector at fixed tube voltage and detector entrance dose with and without additional 0.3-mm copper filtration. 34, No. 68, No. The ability to perform CBCT scans has been driven by the development of amorphous silicon (a-Si) digital at-panel (FP) x-ray detector tech-nology. Spatial frequency ¾mostly used for Medical radiographic imaging amorphous silicon is form of silicon, the British Journal Radiology! Optics, Vol comparison of Different radiography systems ( DR ) 24 May 2004 | Radiology, Vol characterization! 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