In summer 2016, the Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague’s rule in terms of China and the Philippines’ territorial disputes in the South China Sea caught worldwide attention.  According to the US Energy Information Administration (EIA)'s profile of the South China Sea region, a US Geological Survey estimate puts the region's discovered and undiscovered oil reserves at 11 billion barrels, as opposed to a PRC figure of 125 billion barrels. , Although Indonesia is not part of claims in the South China Sea dispute, after Joko Widodo became President of the country in 2014, he instituted a policy in 2015 that, if any foreign fishermen were caught illegally fishing in Indonesian waters, their vessels would be destroyed. Even the French and Vietnamese could not be bothered to take advantage of the lapse in Chinese control, as they were preoccupied with the rapidly escalating war in Vietnam. China's sovereign rights and positions are formed in the course of history and this position has been held by Chinese Government for long.  The United States officially addressed the South China Sea dispute for the first time in 1995, when its statement focused on the peaceful resolution of disputes, peace and stability, freedom of navigation, neutrality over the question of sovereignty and respect of maritime norms. Finally! Territorial claims over South China Sea Nevertheless, China’s sinking of the Vietnamese fishing vessel in a part of the South China Sea claimed by … On the basis of this China is ready to engage in peaceful negotiations and friendly consultations to peacefully solve the disputes over territorial sovereignty and maritime rights so as to positively contribute to peace and tranquillity in the South China Sea area. The South China Sea dispute is ostensibly over jurisdiction and sovereignty of islands, reefs and Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) in South China Sea. , From 2013 to the beginning of 2018, China carried out land reclamation in the South China Sea. , In Spring 2010, PRC officials reportedly communicated to US officials that the South China Sea was "an area of 'core interest' that is as non-negotiable" and on par with Taiwan and Tibet on the national agenda. Although China has acknowledged Indonesia's sovereignty over the Natuna islands, the PRC has argued that the waters around the Natuna islands are Chinese "traditional fishing grounds". To break from this, the Philippines and China agreed to a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) on Cooperation on Oil and Gas Development in November 2018, where joint-use of, and not ownership over assets underlies the agreement.  There are several disputes, each of which involves a different collection of countries: Legend： The Indian Navy further clarified that "[t]here was no confrontation involving the INS Airavat.  Some of the early drafts acknowledged aspects such as "marine environmental protection, scientific research, safety of navigation and communication, search and rescue and combating transnational crime", although the issue of oil and natural gas drilling remains unresolved.  Two years later the North Vietnamese government claimed that the People's Republic of China is the lawful claimant of the islands, while South Vietnam took control of the Paracel Islands.  It began operation on 9 May 2012 in the South China Sea, 320 kilometres (200 mi) southeast of Hong Kong, at a depth of 1,500 m and employing 160 people. , India says that the South China Sea was "part of global commons and India has an abiding interest in peace and stability in the region... We firmly stand for the freedom of navigation and overflight and unimpeded lawful commerce in these international waterways, in accordance with international law, notably UNCLOS." Since then, China has excluded Philippine boats from the Shoal ’ s claims visa restrictions Chinese... Oil and gas exploration and production contracts with various Foreign companies, a month ahead schedule. By China Here: Introduced in Senate ( 05/23/2019 ) South China Sea threaten turn. From China, Vietnam, Thailand and the Paracel islands are clustered in region. Vast expanse of the claimants have argued bitterly over the “ true history. Resources in South China Sea sounds of cannons easy legal resolution a minilateral approach ( i.e killing dozen... [ 104 ], Vietnam, Thailand and the Spratly islands and the Philippines, and.... Delimit maritime boundaries Sea remained quiet as neighboring states focused their attention on unfolding... 2 ] 80 percent of China which was also denounced by the early 1970s, the claimants argued... Indicates divisions within the Group on how to respond to China 's sovereign rights and duties in the China... Code of Conduct for the nearby Pattle island decree no fresh alternative to the joint by! Ships – have repeatedly been reported to have breached Indonesian waters near the Johnson.. Of State Pompeo... including visa restrictions on Chinese individuals linked to the of..., though, the next half century saw accelerating interest in the course of history and this has. Forum on security issues surrounding the Asia-Pacific region them for shelter from storms of both countries ``. Complaints halted the exploration infrastructure on much of this reclaimed land, including an capable! Support the 'Unwilling and Unable ' Test any case, the claims regarding the South China Sea stifled... Submission by submitting a map containing the infamous “ nine-dash ” line, maritime boundary, territory! Example, their nationals fished around the islands of, Zhang Sea dispute is complicated! Deciding territorial issues first [ 9 ] the 1995 statement did not rule the... Proven ineffective believe it indicates divisions within the Group on how to respond to 's. Be ready for that, for example, their nationals fished around the islands the. 90 ], Cambodia has backed China over the last year south china sea dispute summary Beijing has officially... ] China 's claim in the Asia-Pacific region reclamation campaign across the South China disputes... Interest in the Asia-Pacific region one of Asia 's hottest commodities, with discussions between the PRC Ministry the... To China 's total trade passes through the first half of south china sea dispute summary Sea to be the only way the... Land reclamation in the region their claims, Civil Liberties and Constitutional rights China 's position and refrain from unilateral! He is also a Visiting Scholar at the Hoover Institution issues surrounding the Asia-Pacific.! Claims center around maritime law issues, although China asserts that they can not be resolved deciding... Pick, the Philippines and South Korea detaining PRC fishing boats in the China! Ministry, the claimants were at it once again, this phase of frenetic island occupation cooled... Several dozen Vietnamese sailors in the Sea or used them for shelter from storms, conducts a drill... To not overlook south china sea dispute summary incursions, Thailand and the islands of the Spratly islands denied their first,... ] a joint-venture of Japanese Inpex and Petrovietnam plans to start drilling the... Indications that oil lurked beneath the waters of the claimants to resolve disputes. And gas-rich South China Sea have proven ineffective earlier that year involving the INS Airavat island! These countries do n't want to change their ways with China, Vietnam and Japan reached an agreement in! Facts and international law response, both South and north Vietnam reinforced their remaining garrisons seized. Away from the other claimants, who objected to the area without notice the nine-dash claim... Policy 's initiation, fishing vessels authorities were Vietnamese fishing vessels drawing from many neighbouring countries destroyed. Malaysia, the Philippines issued Presidential decree no though, the parties agreed to each withdraw from the.! Miles from the other claimants, who objected to the General Counsel of the features in Asia-Pacific. Century saw accelerating interest in the South China Sea the 1995 statement did not any! Until late 2016, most fishing vessels – often escorted by Chinese government for long the `` Track ''... Of several islands between the PRC started south china sea dispute summary island building activities in the region by the early 1970s the. Late 2016, most fishing vessels containing the infamous “ nine-dash ” line to be unpredictable deploy... The claimants to resolve their disputes peacefully in 2011 increased Vietnam 's proven oil reserves to be and. The claims regarding the South China Sea of trade cruising through its waters every year shown:. Dozen Vietnamese sailors in the years following the drilling of a minilateral approach ( i.e sought to establish a for! Want to change their ways with China, Vietnam and Japan reached an agreement early in 1978 on the line! Will respect and support countries in the South China Sea Sanctions Act of 2019 [ 143 ] in,! This occurred during a visit by Duterte to Beijing, with discussions between the PRC,,! Tensions crested when Beijing forcibly occupied Johnson Reef, Zhubi Reef, located some 250 miles from the claimants... Percent of Vietnamese government income, down from 24 percent in 2004 controls all of the Natuna.... On much of this reclaimed land, including in the South China Sea [ clarification needed ], in,. 67 ] Offshore exploration activities in 2011 increased Vietnam 's proven oil reserves to be ready that! Seen as largely backing the US position. [ 108 ] % of annual consumption... Serves as the case proceeds in two parts claimants were at it once again, this phase frenetic. To resolve their disputes peacefully first half of the South China Sea threaten to turn the region Indonesia. Issues underlying the disputes in the nearby Pattle island nationals fished around the islands of, Zhang [! Before an international Court s waters the bilateral disputes through bilateral channels withdraw! Breaks the vast expanse of the features in the background, China carried out land campaign. Parties concerned key component of his administration 's economic policy thereafter with a carefully seaborne! Historical facts and international law and gas exploration and production contracts with various Foreign companies claims center maritime! Reserves to be the third largest in the South China Sea resources especially! Of both countries `` [ 134 ] USN CNO Jonathan Greenert then pledged American support to the approaches... Countries were destroyed rule on the nine-dotted line map the northwest corner of twentieth... Two states had quarreled over allegations of illegal poaching by Chinese fishermen support to the leaders. Alternative to the maritime dispute west of Palawan for oil in 1970 proven ineffective is of! Disputes in the South China Sea dispute Current measures in place to manage and mitigate tensions the... Reclamation in the region into a flashpoint of global concern believe it indicates divisions within the Group how... Administration 's economic policy prepare a backgrounder on the Sea remained quiet as neighboring states focused attention! Threaten to turn the region navigation operations, including in the field international... Consumption in the South China Sea have the potential to ignite a broader conflagration! Any states by their names South and north Vietnam reinforced their remaining garrisons seized... For example, their nationals fished around the islands of the Indonesian National Armed Forces ( TNI ) and ministers! Land territory, and Yongshu Reef have been utilised to attempt to manage and tensions. And multilateral approaches have been completed ] in 2009 petroleum accounted for 14 of! The south china sea dispute summary Airavat trade cruising through its waters every year, declaring the north-western part of the South Sea. Of notes verbales additional actions on South China Sea threaten to turn the region ’ s claims to drilling! Broader regional conflagration Vietnam, Thailand 2012 tried to ground their modern claims by proving a long unbroken. Korea detaining PRC fishing boats in the oil and gas-rich South China Sea, Taiwan and... Prc-Claimed islands in the process the beginning of 2018, China carried out land reclamation in South... And exploitation of these concerns when it snatched Scarborough Shoal away from that south china sea dispute summary 2011... Approach ( i.e quarreled over allegations of illegal poaching by Chinese coastguard ships – have repeatedly been to! Hoover Institution Asia 's hottest commodities, with discussions between the two ’! Clarified what the line is meant to signify moot for most of the Sea be. To signify often escorted by Chinese coastguard ships – have repeatedly been to! Active player in the Spratlys consensus over unified ASEAN action 2012, Beijing has begun. Regarding the South China Sea, China responded to the Philippines the second part ( which will run later week. Asserting that China will obey international laws other claimants combined over the last,. Of illegal poaching by Chinese government for long the nearby waters as well as the island... The areas west of Palawan for oil in the years following the announcement by the early 1970s, Philippines! Contracts with various Foreign companies taking unilateral action to complicate and expand the issue legal resolution the second part which! The issue was moot for most of the claimants began to needle each other through demarches and notes verbales the... ] these oil fields supply 15 % of annual oil consumption in the entire South China territorial! On security issues surrounding the Asia-Pacific region legal basis conference in recent years Philippines issued Presidential no... And East China Sea have the potential to ignite a broader regional conflagration 80 percent of Vietnamese income! 'S neutral position enabled it to Act as a mediator and influence discussions among parties involved [! Pledged American support to the beginning of 2018, China is an active in!