Action comes first, and it is only when they have already suffered that they begin to think.” How right he was! The Peloponnesian War was a war fought in ancient Greece between Athens and Sparta—the two most powerful city-states in ancient Greece at the time (431 to 405 B.C.E.). The fortification of Decelea prevented the shipment of supplies overland to Athens, and forced all supplies to be brought in by sea at increased expense. Thus, Cyrus put all his means at the disposal of Lysander in the Peloponnesian War. Historians have traditionally divided the war into three phases. The war is named for the Peloponnesus, the peninsula on which Sparta is located. What happened in Athens that led to its weakening and eventual downfall in the first Peloponnesian War? Conflict between the states flared up again in 465 BC, when a helot revolt broke out in Sparta. In the first phase, the Archidamian War, Sparta launched repeated invasions of Attica, while Athens took advantage of its naval supremacy to raid the coast of the Peloponneseand attempt to suppress signs of unrest in its empire. The Peloponnesian War was a conflict between the Greek city-states, Athens and Sparta, from 431 BC that brought an end to the Hellenic age of Pericles and his empire by the succession of Sparta by the end of the war. 2400 years ago, the powerful city-states of Athens and Sparta went to war. It was alleged that the Megarians had desecrated the Hiera Orgas. [12] When the rebellious helots were finally forced to surrender and permitted to evacuate the state, the Athenians settled them at the strategic city of Naupaktos on the Gulf of Corinth. Nicias then sent word to Athens asking for reinforcements. Download png. In the aftermath, Athens gave amnesty to the 3,000 men who were given special treatment under the regime, with the exception of those who comprised the governing Thirty and their associated governmental officials. The Peloponnesian War Causes The causes of the main Peloponnesian War need to be traced at least to the early 430s—the Great Gap period—although if Thucydides was right in his general explanation for the war, namely Spartan fear of Athenian expansion, the development of the entire 5th century and indeed part of the 6th were relevant. These ships were then released, and served as the core of the Athenians' fleet throughout the rest of the war. With its victory at Mantinea, Sparta pulled itself back from the brink of utter defeat, and re-established its hegemony throughout the Peloponnese. The democratic alliance was broken up, and most of its members were reincorporated into the Peloponnesian League. This led to a number of Spartan expeditions against Thebes, known as The Boeotian War. The Spartans built a navy with Persian money and defeated the Athenian navy. The dispute over Corcyra was a result of the dispute of the Epidamnus and leads to the dispute of the Potidaea. In fact, 3,000 such men were chosen by the Thirty to share in the government of Athens. After the battle of Aegospotami, Sparta took over the Athenian empire and kept all of its tribute revenues for itself; Sparta's allies, who had made greater sacrifices for the war effort than had Sparta, got nothing.[3]. Fought between the allies of Sparta and the empire of Athens, the crippling Peloponnesian War paved the way for the Macedonian takeover of Greece by Philip II of Macedon and, following that, Alexander the Great's empire. What was the outcome of the Peloponnesian War? A. Persian domination over Greece B. With winter approaching, the Athenians were then forced to withdraw into their quarters, and they spent the winter gathering allies and preparing to destroy Syracuse. Between 410 and 406, Athens won a continuous string of victories, and eventually recovered large portions of its empire. Threatened with starvation, the Athenian fleet had no choice but to follow. The Athenian force consisted of over 100 ships and some 5,000 infantry and light-armored troops. Both Brasidas and Cleon were killed in Athenian efforts to retake Amphipolis (see Battle of Amphipolis). He took command of the Syracusan troops, and in a series of battles defeated the Athenian forces, and prevented them from invading the city. A peace with Sparta might have been possible, but the Athenian fleet, now based on the island of Samos, refused to accept the change. 30 seconds . The post off Pylos struck Sparta where it was weakest: its dependence on the helots, who tended the fields while its citizens trained to become soldiers. The political, economic, or military predominance or control of one state over others. After suffering a defeat at the hands of their colony of Corcyra, a sea power that was not allied to either Sparta or Athens, Corinth began to build an allied naval force. in. Thucydides is important because he is one of the great Greek historians. This war, while greater than previous skirmishes, was not entirely anomalous. social studies. In order to uphold the Thirty Years' Peace, however, the Athenians were instructed not to intervene in the battle unless it was clear that Corinth was going to press onward to invade Corcyra. The History of the Peloponnesian War tells the story of the Peloponnesian War in Ancient Greece.It was written by Thucydides, an Athenian general who served in that war. The Persians were slow to furnish promised funds and ships, frustrating battle plans. Their treasury was nearly empty, its docks were depleted, and many of the Athenian youth were dead or imprisoned in a foreign land. In addition, the fear of a general revolt of helots emboldened by the nearby Athenian presence drove the Spartans to action. For a time during this conflict, Athens controlled not only Megara but also Boeotia; at its end, however, in the face of a massive Spartan invasion of Attica, the Athenians ceded the lands they had won on the Greek mainland, and Athens and Sparta recognized each other's right to control their respective alliance systems. 'S powerful ally corinth was notably opposed to intervention, and what was an outcome of the peloponnesian war was maintained and their allies to. Final phase of the war to Athens cite this event as the main points to remember who. 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