These reports found that the underage labourers are in their teens, typically ranging from 13 to 15 years old, but some are as young as 10 years old. [5], A correlation has also been found between sources and the destinations for trafficked victims. The United States is not asking China to adopt its domestic laws. In the United States Department of State report, "Article 244 of the Chinese Criminal Law criminalises forced labour, but prescribes punishments of a fine or no more than three years imprisonment, and only if the circumstances are found to be 'serious' - penalties which are not sufficiently stringent." The TVPA is the Trafficking Victims Protection Act, passed by Congress in 2000, which details a variety of tools and measures “to combat trafficking in persons both worldwide and domestically,” explains the State Department. "[9], The buying and selling of organs is prevalent in the black market of China. Public security officials also say that the problem is gradually becoming a cross-border issue. Most Popular on TIME 1 Geographic Distribution of Forced Laborers, Pressure from Human Rights/Activist Groups, 13th Amendment to the United States Constitution, Timeline of abolition of slavery and serfdom, Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons, List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor, Organ harvesting from Falun Gong practitioners in China, "Human Trafficking & Modern-day Slavery - China", "Country Narratives: Countries A Through F: Trafficking in Persons Report 2010: China (Tier 2 Watch List)", "Trafficking in Persons Report 2017: Tier Placements", "China: Sex Work and Human Trafficking (Part 1)", "Human Trafficking in East Asia: Current Trends, Data Collection, and Knowledge Gaps", "List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor", "Organ Trafficking and Transplant Tourism: A Commentary on the Global Realities", "Birth Control, Surrogate Mothers and Abortions in China", "Laws and Regulations: Opinions on Severely Punishing Trafficking in Women and Children according to Law", "Child Safety Community Help You Save Your Child", "ASEAN and Trafficking in Persons: Using Data as a Tool to Combat Trafficking in Persons", "Overview: Association of Southeast Asian Nations", "Combating human trafficking requires a regional approach, says Stanford scholar", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Human_trafficking_in_China&oldid=997860707, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from August 2019, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 2 January 2021, at 16:14. A State Department report on human trafficking published in 2004 cites official Chinese statistics indicating that between 2001 and 2003, Chinese law enforcement agencies investigated more than 20,000 trafficking cases involving over 43,000 women and children. In an effort to control the growing population, the country limited each family to the maximum of one child. The US and Tajik governments have co-operated for 20 years in fighting human trafficking, according to the embassy statement. As a recent New York Times article suggests, many poor Chinese families also send their daughters to work in the sex trade. The penalties for traffickers and buyers of the 'human goods' are high and severe. [4], The number of female migrants is also rising rapidly, most of whom are young girls aged 17–25. According to China's Ministry of Health, some 1.5 million people continue to wait for transplants. In fact, in the past thirty years, over 25,000 children have been born to surrogate mothers in China. [19] One of the primary purposes of ASEAN is to prevent trafficking, protect victims and prosecute traffickers.[16]. In fact, the laws against trafficking in women in China are as severe as the law prohibiting rape according to the U.S. Department of State in 2001. It is a country of origin, destination, and transit for sexually trafficked persons. [2] For example, there were reports that child labourers were found working in brick kilns, low-skill service sectors and in small workshops and factories. While highlighting this work, the Xinhua piece and a related article published in the Procuratorial Daily also paint a disturbing picture of trends in human trafficking in China. In total, from the 1353 cases, 2161 offenders were sentenced, representing an 11.05% increase from 2007. There is also child protection work at children's activity centres in cities like Nanning, Kunming, Shenzhen, and Shanghai with huge migrant communities. Abductions of children are on the rise, and the wives and sons of migrant workers have become common targets of abduction. In-vitro fertilization also produces a higher chance of having twins or triplets, leading to circumvention of China's one-child policy. "[4], The United Nations Inter-Agency Project on Human Trafficking reports that around 600,000 migrant workers leave China annually to work overseas. As reported over the past five years, human traffickers subject domestic and foreign individuals to trafficking in China, and they subject Chinese individuals to trafficking abroad. For national, bi- and multilateral laws and agreements on human trafficking involving China, please see the resource section. The United States has declared China and Russia among the worst countries in fighting human trafficking, a designation that could lead to sanctions against both nations. According to an organ trafficking paper written by Budiani-Saberi and Delmonico, 11,000 transplants were performed in china using the organs of executed prisoners in 2006. There is a shortage of organs available for transplantation which fuels a thriving black market for organs. The growing demand for surrogate mothers is based upon the fact that many urban Chinese are marrying later and postponing child birth as work demands and the high costs of city living weigh couples down. Perhaps up to 90% of the migrant workers are migrating through unregulated and uninformed channels. However, since China has recently adopted the Human Transplantation Act that bans commercial use of prisoner organs, China has reduced the number of transplants to foreign patients by 50% in 2007. [11], Of the transplants performed, 8,000 were kidney transplants, 3,000 were liver transplants, and 200 were heart transplants. severely punished according to law. Women and children from China are trafficked to Africa, Europe, Latin America, the Middle East, and North America, predominantly Taiwan, Thailand, Malaysia, and Japan for commercial sexual exploitation and forced labour. Combating Human Trafficking in China: Domestic and International Efforts John R. Miller, Senior Advisor on Trafficking in Persons Testimony before the Congressional-Executive Commission on China Washington, DC March 6, 2006. As an example, in May 2009, media reports exposed a forced labour case at brick kilns in Anhui province, where mentally handicapped workers were subjected to slave-like conditions. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. Of those who were sentenced, 1475 were [2], The overall extent of forced labour and child labour in China is also unclear in part because the government releases only limited information on the subject according to the report on trafficking issued by the U.S. Department of State. 58% of the articles reported into which sector victims were trafficked: forced prostitution 19%; the entertainment industry, hairdressing or massage parlours 9%; brick kilns 9%; manufacturing 4%; domestic labour 3%; forced begging 3%; and others 11%. The U.S. Department of State reported that China had "arrested 19 of the country’s 20 most wanted traffickers and pursuit of criminal networks and organized crime syndicates involved in trafficking." Identified as a source, transit and destination country for human trafficking, issues of human trafficking in China range from forced marriage to forced labor, forced sex work, sale and profitable adoption of babies and human smuggling. The U.S. Department of State has issued a report stating that "Chinese children are forced into prostitution, and various forms of forced labour, including begging, stealing, selling flowers, and work in brick kilns and factories; the children of migrants are particularly vulnerable to trafficking." For example, trafficking of young boys for adoption, and girls and young women for sexual exploitation were different instances of human trafficking that had a positive correlation with another factor. There were numerous confirmed reports of involuntary servitude of children, adults, and migrant workers during the reporting period. However these would benefit from greater collaboration and coordination. As human trafficking is a prevalent problem within China, regulations and laws have been implemented in order to prohibit forms of trafficking. According to Helen Stacy, director of the CDDRL Program on Human Rights and a FSI senior fellow, human rights issues are becoming integrated into regional discussions on trade and economic development. China is a party to critical international agreements concerning human trafficking. Identified as a source, transit, and destination country for human trafficking, issues of human trafficking in China range from forced marriage to forced labor, forced sex work, sale and profitable adoption of babies, and human smuggling (Hendrix 2010; Emerton et al. [4] For example, of the 8,000 Vietnamese women married to Chinese men in Guangxi province between 1989 and 1999, some were introduced by friends and relatives, and most were found to have been trafficked. [5], According to a UNIAP study on the reports of human trafficking in China, there were 800 reported human trafficking cases reported in the print media between 2006 and 2007. In total, 2413 offenders were sentenced, representing an 11.7% increase from 2008. Students do not have a voice in raising concerns about how they are employed and have no protection against any abusive work practice or dangerous conditions of being on the job. The UNIAP states that many individuals have been trafficked from southwest China though Myanmar and eventually into countries like Thailand and Malaysia. Undocumented migrants who are trafficked into China mainly come from Vietnam, Russia, North Korea and Myanmar. [14], Another organization called the All-China Women's Federation which is an anti-trafficking education campaign aimed at educating vulnerable women and children to protect themselves against prevailing social and cultural perspectives that propagate human trafficking. “The China border [saw a large amount] of human trafficking even before the conflict,” said Ms May Sabe Tu, a coordinator for the Kachin Women’s Peace Network, referring to the fighting between the government and Kachin Independence Army. [6], Popular areas of origin for domestically trafficked brides are the poorer areas of Yunnan, Sichuan, and Guizhou where poverty renders women more vulnerable to trafficking. Foreign NGO activities in mainland China are limited and under the supervision of the government. Therefore, China has resorted to harvesting organs from the bodies of prisoners for the use of organ transplants. Particularly, according to the article on "Human Trafficking and Smuggling in China" by Cindy Chu, trafficked women were usually aged between 20 and 50 in the past, but "recently most of them were under 20 and some were girls as young as 12 years old. Though it primarily manifests itself in the forms of forced labor and modern slavery, human trafficking can also apply to other issues such as sex trafficking, forced criminality and forced organ removal. A domestic market for wives and illegal adoptions was once the reason for most human trafficking in China, but now traffickers abduct women and children for use as forced laborers, street performers, prostitutes, beggars, thieves, etc. [6] Locations of sex trafficking of Chinese women and girls abroad vary widely, and sometimes are collocated with concentrations of Chinese migrant workers in factories, and mining and logging camps. Provinces with the highest GDP per capita like Fujian, Guangdong, and Shangong, are the prime destinations for trafficked victims because there is a great demand and resources available to utilise forced labourers. [14], According to a pamphlet created by Save the Children debriefing the current situation in China, the organisation is "helping to build networks that migrants can turn to when they arrive in their destinations." The Chinese Health Ministry has cracked down on many of these practices and even forced the abortion of the fetuses by the surrogate mothers when discovered. It has expanded to include Bruenei, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, and Vietnam since then along with adding the ASEAN Plus Three of China, Japan, and Korea. “But the conflict is triggering a higher volume of women being trafficked across the border.” In 2006, the 8,000 kidney transplants alone in China would have accounted for at least 10% of the total number of annual organ transplants done in programs of organ trafficking. This exploitation of women's bodies has called for stricter laws against surrogacy. The study found correlations between factors like age and gender with different types of human trafficking. sentenced to more than 5 years of imprisonment, life imprisonment, or death, representing an 11.83% increase from 2008. [2], Internal trafficking is most pronounced among China's migrant population, which is estimated to exceed 150 million people. [4], The trafficking of individuals across countries has a wide array of purposes, ranging from commercial sexual exploitation and forced marriage to illegal adoption, forced labour, and begging. [8], In a report by the Ministry of Public Security and the Ministry of Justice, details have been provided into combating human trafficking in China. [18], This includes commitments to work together to prevent trafficking, to identify and protect the victims, and to ensure that offenders are punished. Women are most likely sold into provinces like Henan in which the gender imbalance is particularly stark and where there is a high demand for women. Anyone can join in the fight against human trafficking. Human trafficking is a challenging issue for businesses across industries. [5], Also, in 2016 TongJuBao.com, a collaborative mutual help model (also referred to sometimes as P2P Insurance) launched a Child Safety scheme intended to mobilise the resources of all member to fund professional rapid investigation support (supporting the family and police efforts) in case a child from the community should go missing. China is a main source and also a significant transit and destination country for men, women, and children who are subjected to trafficking in persons, specifically forced labour and forced prostitution. According to public security officials, the nature of abduction crimes and traffickers’ tactics have changed in recent years. Traffickers also use China as a transit point to subject foreign individuals to trafficking in other countries throughout Asia and in international maritime industries. Human Rights Watch investigated bride trafficking from northern Myanmar into China. [1][2], U.S. State Department's Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons placed the country in "Tier 3" in 2017. Gangs and criminal syndicates are becoming more involved in human trafficking, and violent tactics are being used more often. Numerous government ministries as well as international and domestic agencies and organisations work to combat trafficking patterns in China. In addition, the definition of trafficking does not pertain to male victims of trafficking or adult victims of labour trafficking. The Chinese government ratified the UN Trafficking in Persons Protocol in December 2009, which obligates China to prohibit all forms of trafficking and bring its domestic laws into conformity with international standards within 24 months. More than ever, business must prevent, identify, address and remediate exploitative practices in their operations and supply chains. Both China and Myanmar are listed in the lowest tier for their lack of efforts to stop human trafficking in the U.S. State Department’s 2018 Trafficking in Persons Report. Congressional-Executive Commission on China, UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress, and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children. [5] Fujian, Guangdong, and Shandong were the primary destination provinces. Traffickers generally sell these women in distant areas, such as Shaanxi, Ningxia, Guangxi, Hainan, and Guangdong provinces with large gender imbalances. [2] Forced labour remains a serious problem, including in brick kilns, coal mines, factories, and on construction sites throughout China. The emphasis placed on enhancing international cooperation in the Chinese articles cited above may be evidence that the Chinese government is re-evaluating this issue. [12], In particular, couples look for surrogate mothers the year before the dragon so that their children can be born on an auspicious year. 20 Actions in 2020. [5], According to the UNIAP report on human trafficking in China, 301 trafficking cases reported by the media from 2007 to mid-2008 were analysed to determine that Yunnan and Guizhou were the main source provinces of human trafficking. [16][17] Original ASEAN member countries formed in 1967 included Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand. They created a safe migration textbook for children that has been instituted into the education system in the Ping Xiang, Guanzi province. [5], In another instance, children in Xinjiang were forced to pick cotton as part of a "work-study" program, according to foreign media reports. "[13], Several organisations within China have dedicated efforts into ameliorating the human trafficking situation. [5] Henan province is both a source and destination for human trafficking. As reported over the past five years, human traffickers subject domestic and foreign individuals to trafficking in China, and they subject Chinese individuals to trafficking abroad. According to a UNIFCEF report published in 2002, there are an estimated 250,000 victims of human trafficking in China. Traffickers recruited girls and young women, often from rural areas of China, using a combination of fraudulent job offers, imposition of large travel fees, and threats of physical or financial harm, to obtain and maintain their service in prostitution. Since 2001, USAID has spent more than $20 million to raise awareness of human trafficking and to aid trafficking survivors in Tajikistan. The organ trade is the trade of organs for organ transplantation. China's cooperation with the international community in the fight against human trafficking is reflected not only in its efforts to undertake global treaty obligations, but also in a series of bilateral and multilateral cooperation programs and concrete actions it has carried out. For example, Save the Children is a program that has helped fund research to gain a clearer understanding into issues like migration, trafficking and street children to help promote safer migration. In addition, police complicity with smugglers has further exacerbated the problem, leaving women vulnerable to trafficking and forced marriage. Human trafficking is any forced exploitation or trade of human beings against their will. Many wealthy couples often hire more than one surrogate mother to ensure that eight babies are born because eight is a lucky number in Chinese culture. [12], As human trafficking is a prevalent problem within China, regulations and laws have been implemented in order to prohibit forms of trafficking. Learn the indicators of human trafficking on the TIP Office’s website or by taking a training. [2], The Chinese government passed a number of laws against trafficking and smuggling. [2] However, the amount of corruption and weak enforcement by officials have impeded the successful implementation of such laws and programs. Causes of Human Trafficking in China The one-child policy has contributed to human trafficking in China and can be considered as one of the main reasons for this negative trend in the country. [6], One demographic particularly susceptible to forced labour is children. During the year, Chinese sex trafficking victims were reported on all of the inhabited continents. The All-China Women's Federation is also involved in a collaboration project with Vietnam to combat trafficking on the borders. [2] Chinese laws only recognise forms of coercion other than abduction, such as threats of physical harm or non-physical harm, as constituting a means of trafficking. These countries are dedicated to the fight against trafficking of people. A person is considered a "trafficked victim if he or she is involved in the above-mentioned situations, regardless of whether the person consents to it or not. By educating children and young people about the dangers of trafficking, especially in communities of ethnic minorities, they will be better equipped to stay on their guard against trafficker organisations. In addition, vanity may also be involved as women continue to maintain their figures. China is making progress fighting human trafficking, especially from southeast Asian nations, but needs greater regional cooperation and tougher action, a senior official said on Wednesday. Gangs from China and neighbouring countries lured victims into China many of whom were sold as brides to Chinese men, said Guo Lin, a spokesman for the Ministry of Public Security. For example, the report states that "since combating trafficking in women and children started nationally in 1991, a large number of cases of trafficking in women and children has been solved and handled and offenders Public security agencies rescued 5,461 abducted women and 3,488 abducted children nationwide in 2004, according to a Xinhua article. The Chinese government ratified the UN Trafficking in Persons Protocol in December 2009, which obligates China to prohibit all forms of trafficking and bring its domestic laws into conformity with international standards within 24 months. Its 2013-20 action plan, released in March 2013, sets concrete targets and measures for the global fight against transnational human trafficking and assigns different responsibilities to different departments. Other countries in Tier 3 with China include Cuba, Iran, … Often, men kidnap the women after enticing them with promises of employment and money, but later sell them to villages and other provinces. [10], Although surrogacy in China is illegal, it is still a common practice among the wealthy Chinese population. Trafficked women are often then forced into marriage and therefore suffer from prolonged sexual exploitation. The couples looking for a surrogate mother go through an unlicensed agency which acts like a middleman that establishes communication with women willing to rent their wombs. The State Department report concludes that although China is “making significant efforts” to address the trafficking problem, it “does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking.” In particular, China has not signed the UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress, and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children. This number accounts for those tracked by the Ministry of Labour and Social Security and does not include those who leave without documents. Many women are deceived because of their poor education and they are often also marginalized minority groups who believe the false promises of traffickers who offer the hope of living an urban life. Trafficking is an issue in China, which has said it was making progress in fighting the problem, both domestically and from Southeast Asian nations such as neighboring poverty-stricken Myanmar. [5], The main means of trafficking involved: fraud and deception, 37%; kidnapping, 26%; abuse of power or a position of vulnerability, 17%; and physical violence, 5%. If you are looking for a way to help fight against human trafficking, here's a list of global anti-trafficking organizations, as well as organizations active in specific countries. [8], The problem of sex trafficking stems from the gender imbalance present in China. [15], The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) signed their first human rights convention in November 2012 and committed itself to a trafficking agreement in 2014. [3], According to the United Nations Palermo Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons of 2000, as part of the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organised Crime, human trafficking involves "recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons" by "the use of force or other means of coercion" with the "purpose of exploitation". China and Vietnam will expand intelligence sharing and case investigations in the fight against rampant cross-border trafficking of women, a senior Ministry of Public Security official said. Traffickers usually attract victims through false promises of high salaries and stable job incomes. Sex trafficking in China is human trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation and slavery that occurs in the People's Republic of China.China, the world's most populous country, has one of the highest rates of human trafficking, including sex trafficking, in the world. [19] ASEAN, being a free trade organisation, has taken interest in human trafficking because countries have begun to recognise that if they want to claim national governance credibility, they have to at least acknowledge the problem, sign human rights agreements, and start cooperating with their neighbours in combating human trafficking. Here are 20 ideas to consider acting on in the year 2020. "[13], In 2008, courts nationwide convened to decide 1353 cases of trafficking in women and children which was a 9.91% increase of cases from 2007. Although China is believed to be a major source of both victims of human trafficking as well as traffickers, little is known about the activity. In provinces with the lowest GDP per capita in China like Yunnan and Guizhou, trafficked victims come from these areas. Human trafficking awareness training is available for individuals, businesses, first responders, law enforcement, educators, and federal employees, among others. They worked long hours and were exploited under this simple guise. Representative James P. McGovern, Chair I  Senator Marco Rubio, Cochair. [13], In 2009, courts nationwide decided 1636 cases of trafficking in women and children, representing a 20.9% increase from 2008. The Congressional-Executive Commission on China held a Commission hearing entitled "Combating Human Trafficking in China: Domestic and International Efforts," on Monday, March 6 from 2 - 3:30 PM in Room 419 of the Dirksen Senate Office Building. Men in communities experiencing severe shortage of women are under strong pressure to find a bride. The U.S. Department of State reported that China had "arrested 19 of the country’s 20 most wanted traffickers and pursuit of cri… It is unclear whether the cited statistics include such individuals. One of the largest coalitions fighting trafficking is the Global Business Coalition Against Human Trafficking (gBCAT), which includes Coca Cola, Microsoft, and LexisNexis. [11], According to a New Yorker Article written by Jiayang Fan, even though China performs more transplants annually than any country except the United States, less than one per cent of the population in need of life-saving transplants receives them (as compared to about twenty per cent in the United States). [2], In addition to internal trafficking of the migrant population in China, rampant trafficking is often also attributed to a decade-long one-child policy that resulted in gender imbalance, and a universal expectation to marry. 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